Saturday, February 8, 2020

Conjoined twins issue Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Conjoined twins issue - Case Study Example In conjoined twins, these chemical messages do not work properly.The results can be bizarre, like a single organism with two heads, two hearts, four legs and arms. Jodie and Mary were conjoined twins. They each had their own brain, heart, lungs, other vital organs and each of them had arms and legs. They were joined at the lower abdomen and it was decided by the medical authorities of the UK that they could be successfully separated upon. However, this operation would kill the weaker twin, Mary, because her lungs and heart were too weak to oxygenate and pump blood through her body. Had she not been born a conjoined twin, she would not have been able to live and resuscitation would have been abandoned. She would have died shortly after birth. She was alive only because a common artery enabled her sister, who was stronger, to circulate life sustaining oxygenated blood through her body. Separation would require the clamping and then the severing of that common artery and within minutes of doing so, Mary would die. However, if the operation did not take place, both would die within three to six months, or perhaps a little longer, because Jodie's heart would eventually fail. The parents could not bring themselves to consent to the operation. The twins were equal in their eyes and they could not agree to kill one even to save the other. As devout Roman Catholics, they believed that their children's afflic... The medical classification of this type of conjoined twins is termed as Ischiopagus tetrapus and in such twins there is a fusion at the pelvic level often with a sharing of genitourinary structures, rectum and the liver. The consequence of the surgical intervention was that Mary quickly died and Jodie survived. Conjoined twins exist on the margins of our notions of embodiment and individuality. They challenge the boundaries of medical, ethical and legal possibility and permissibility and their existence poses a threat to entrenched social values about the worth of lives that differ from the norm of one individual, one body2. Numerous instances of the high profile sacrificial separation of conjoined twins have highlighted the fact that separation decisions seem to be reached on a case-by-case basis. Further, these decisions have been made based on their perceived merit, which does nothing for the internal coherence of the reasoning in the case. Since, judges may agree on outcomes but for different reasons, this presents a problem in the application of precedents, or for the case's coherence within the law, and a deserving outcome in one case may cause tensions in related law. As is often said, 'hard cases make bad law'. In Airedale N.H.S. Trust v Bland in House of Lords, Lord Browne-Wilkinson gave a judgment, which was at the same time excellent and most instructive in respect of euthanasia. In this case, withdrawal of life support systems was permitted3. The common law in UK allows people to decide for themselves, whether to agree to have surgery or medicine and further, that this right also implies the right to refuse such treatment even if such rejection results in death. This point in law has always been recognized by the courts. Robert Walker

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Industrial Relations & Collective Bargaining Essay Example for Free

Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining Essay Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influencing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. . Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. v4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors infl uencing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. 3. Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective Bargaining: Concept, Its relevance in IR, CB as an institution, ILO perception of CB, Objectives of CB, Structure, Functions, process, negotiations, bargaining approaches techniques, patterns of bargaining. . Settlements: Types of settlements, Wage settlement, bonus settlement, productivity settlement, VRS settlement, Union issues settlement, Reorganization settlement, Transfer, Layoff, Retrenchment and Closure settlements. 4. 4 Elective HRM 6: Industrial Relations Collective Bargaining 1. Industrial Relations: Historical background, Concept and approaches in IR – Stake holders of IR, Various factors influ encing IR, HR approach to IR, Essentials of sound IR policy, IR Strategies, Legal frame work of IR, Community of IR. Proactive IR, Industrial conflicts, Disputes, Conflict resolution. 2. Trade Unions: Trade union movement and growth of TU in India, National level federations, Trade union problems, Trade union Organization, Leadership and management of Trade union, Trade Union Act 1926, Registration of trade union, Employers Association – Objectives, Origin and growth, Legal status, Problems of Trade Unions. . Grievances and Disciplines: Grievances, Redressal, Discipline, Standing Orders, Acts of misconduct, Show cause notice, Suspension, Enquiry procedure, Principles of natural justice, Punishments, Demotion suspension, Termination, Removal and dismissals, Conflicts – Industrial disputes –Lay off, Termination simplicitor, Retrenchment, closures, VRS. 4. Collective

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Beer Game :: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework

The Beer Game To see how decisions at one part of a supply chain effect the overall performance of a system, we ran a simulation called the beer game. The supply chain consists of a retailer who orders from a distributor who orders from a wholesaler who orders from a factory. At the beginning of each period, each stage of the chain orders upstream and receives the order shipped out to them two periods ago (the order they placed 4 periods ago) unless the next stage upstream is backlogged. All orders are eventually filled when inventory becomes available. The holding cost specified for each location are (in $/keg.period): factory: 0.25, distribution center: 0.50, warehouse: 0.75, and factory: 1.00. Additionally, the penalty cost for a shortage is zero for all stages except the retail stores where the penalty cost is estimated to be $10.00 per keg/period. After trying many different strategies, the best policy I was able to come up with had a total cost of $122.00. This was achieved using choice 4, the base-stock policy. This policy re-orders a specified amount, less inventory on hand and pipeline inventory. The player specifies the base stock quantity for the retailer, warehouse, distributor, and factory. When this policy was used at each point in the supply chain, the lowest cost strategy was achieved. Location Base Stock Amount Cost Retail 300 101.55 Warehouse 210 10.21 Distributor 210 7.70 Factory 150 3.41 Total 122.87 Because the retail store encounters such a high penalty for shortages, it is best to keep them well stocked. They also have the highest holding â€Å"overage†cost, but at $1.00 it is only 1/10 of the shortage â€Å"underage†cost. If the â€Å"overage† and â€Å"underage† costs were equal it would make sense to always order enough to anticipate having the mean (50) on hand. This policy is not optimal however, when it costs the retailer more for a shortage than for excess.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Critical State Soil Mechanics

The preparation of the Cam Clay theoretical account in 1958 is possibly the most of import development in modern dirt mechanics. Mechanical belongingss of dirt have been unified elegantly and systematically into the theoretical model of the theoretical account: the critical province dirt mechanics. Since so, many theoretical accounts were developed within the theoretical model of Cam Clay theoretical account and they form theoretical accounts of the Cam Clay household. Two most distinguished characteristics of theoretical accounts of the Cam Clay household are: ( 1 ) the hardening of dirts based on plastic volumetric distortion, and ( 2 ) the being of a critical province of distortion as the concluding failure province. A brief debut of the two characteristics is given in this session, and descriptions of the strengths of dirts based on critical province dirt mechanics is given in the undermentioned subdivision.7.1.1: Hardening of dirt based on plastic volumetric distortionAs seen in the compaction theoretical account illustrated in Fig. 10, whenever the current emphasis goes beyond the historical upper limit emphasis, plastic volumetric distortion occurs and the elastic zone enlarges. The expansion of the elastic zone is seen as the hardening of dirt and is straight linked to the plastic volumetric distortion of the dirt. Consequently, the undermentioned decisions are drawn from indurating mechanism of dirt. The magnitude of plastic volumetric distortion is dependent on the alteration in size of the output surface, but independent of the stress way. All emphasis provinces which have the same accretion of plastic volumetric strain constitute a individual output surface.7.1.2: Prediction of the being of a critical province of distortionSoil is a frictional stuff. When the emphasis ratio applied on a dirt component additions, dirt will finally make a point, where it has no opposition to further shear distortion. The dirt fails. This is a critical province of distortion. A Critical State of distortion is defined as At a Critical State of distortion, a dirt has no opposition to shear distortion and the dirt can be distorted continuously with its emphasis province and nothingnesss ratio remain unchanged. A critical province of distortion is a concluding failure province. The theoretical model, uniting systematically the mechanical belongingss of dirt into one simple and elegant system under the Cam Clay theoretical account, is referred to as the Critical State Soil Mechanics ( CSSM ) .7.2: Strength of dirt described in the critical province dirt mechanicsThe behavior of Fuji sand in triaxial trials is shown in Fig. 12 ( Tatsuoka, 1972 ) . The trials are drained trials. The axial emphasis additions with the restricting emphasis kept changeless. The denseness of the dirt for the three trials varies from really loose to really dense. It is seen that Fuji sand in a really heavy Fuji province has two strengths: a peak strength and a strength as really big shear strain. For the loose sand, the dirt has merely one strength, besides at really big shear strain. It besides appears that the strength as really big shear 0 5 10 15 20 25 Distortional strain ad ( % ) Volumetric strain Cv ( % ) -12 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 Dense =0.52 Loose eaˆz =0.78 Very loose =0.85 Distortional strain ad ( % ) Fig. 12 The shearing behavior of Fuji sand under triaxial compaction trials ( Test informations after Tatsuoka, 1972 ) Shear emphasis ratio two 3.2 2.4 0.8 1.6 0 Dense =0.52 Loose eaˆz =0.78 Very loose =0.85 -4 -8 strain for the three samples are really near and appears to near a alone value as the distortional strain additions. The peak strength and the critical province strength of dirt interpreted by the critical province dirt mechanics are introduced in the followers.7.2.1 Critical province strengthUnder shearing ( increasing distortional strain ) , dirt reaches a concluding failure province, the critical province of distortion. At a critical province of distortion: Therefore, a dirt can be distorted with no alteration in its emphasis, and no volumetric plastic distortion. At critical provinces of distortion, dirt has the undermentioned characteristics ( Fig. 13 ) . The shear emphasis ratio c is changeless, denoted by I . There is a alone relationship between the average effectual emphasis paˆ? and nothingnesss ratio vitamin E, irrespective of the initial state of affairs of the dirt or the stress way of the trial. 27 This relationship is additive in the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite, and its gradient is the same as that of ICL in the compaction theoretical account, being e . The features of critical provinces can be represented by the critical province line ( CSL ) in the paˆ? – q infinite and the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite. They are described mathematically as. I · Q = I? ( 46 ) Paˆ?e=eCS a?’I »lnpaˆ? ( 47 ) Critical province shear emphasis ratio M Shear emphasis Q I? CSL Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ ( kPa ) ( a ) CSL in the p'-q infinite The critical province shear emphasis ratio is linked to the concluding failure clash angle ocs of dirt measured from conventional triaxial compress trial by the undermentioned equation I? = 6 wickedness I† cs ( 48 ) 3 a?’sin I† cs The critical province clash angle for most san vitamin D is 32A ° A ± 1A ° , which gives about M = 1.28. Determination of the concluding failure strength of dirts Nothingnesss ratio vitamin E vitamin E CS eIC ( 1 ) Undrained concluding strength of dirt ICL I » CSL I » p'=1 kPa Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ ( kPa ) ( B ) CSL in the e-lnp ‘ infinite Fig. 13 Characteristics of critical province of distortion P aˆ? = exp aZ? aZ? aZY Cesium I a?’ Cs aZ? I » aZ Three parametric quantities define a dirt province. They are the emphasis province on the dirt and its nothingnesss ratio, i.e. , ( paˆ? , Q, vitamin E ) . Because any dirt province at a critical province of distortion must fulfill conditions expressed by equation ( 46 ) and ( 47 ) , the concluding failure province ofa dirt, the critical province of distortion, can be determined if there is one more extra status. Some of common instances are discussed here. During an undrained trial, volumetric distortion is non allowed. Therefore, the nothingnesss ratio ofthe dirt is kept the same and is equal to its initial value, ei. Based on equations ( 46 ) and ( 47 ) , the undrained concluding shear strength qcs, the mean effectual emphasis paˆ?cs, an d the nothingnesss ratio European Union are given by ( 49 ) 28 aZ § aZ†ºe vitamin E aZz Cesium I aZ†º a?’ aZz aZ? aZY aZ? I » aZ aZ?aZ? vitamin E vitamin E Cs aZ? Q = I? exp vitamin E vitamin E Cs I=aZ © aZ? aZ? aZ? ( 2 ) Drained concluding strength for changeless paˆ? trials The average effectual emphasis at the concluding critical failure province is known, paˆ?i, so aZ § aZ?aZ? aZ?aZ © personal computers = pi qcs Ipaˆ?i ( 50 ) ei = eCS a?’ I » ln pi The stress way for this type of trials is a perpendicular line in the paˆ? – Q infinite, as shown in Fig. 4. ( 3 ) Drained concluding strength for changeless Q trials The shear strength at the concluding failure province is known, chi, soI » ln chi aˆ? = Cs P I? qcs = chi=ei European Union a?’ aZ†º Q aZz ( 51 ) I aZ?aZ? I? aZ aZY The stress way for this type of trials is a horizontal line in the paˆ? – Q infinite, as shown in Fig. 4. ( 4 ) Drained concluding strength for trials with additive emphasis waies Suppose the gradient for the additive emphasis way is k, and the initial emphasis province of the dirt is ( paˆ?i, chi ) . Then the dirt province at the concluding failure province can be obtained from work outing the undermentioned equations qcs a?’ chi = k personal computers a?’ pi I?aˆ? P Cs =eCSa?’I »lnp qcs European Union ( 52 ) aZ § aZ? aZ? aZ © aˆ? Cs 29 Two common additive emphasis waies, discussed in subdivision 3.3, are ( 1 ) conventional triaxial compaction trials with the restricting emphasis kept changeless and in this instance k = 3, and ( 2 ) conventional triaxial extension trials with the axial emphasis kept changeless and in this instance k = – 1.5.Example 5The critical province clash angle for a sand is 32A ° . For its CSL in the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite, the gradient is 0.12 and European Union is 1.42. ( 1 ) Determine the values of M ; ( 2 ) Pull a study of the CSL in the paˆ? – q infinite and the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite ; ( 3 ) Determine the concluding failure strength of a specimen of the sand with initial province as ( paˆ? = 75 kPa, q = 0, vitamin E = 0.85 ) . ( a ) under undrained state of affairs ; ( B ) under a changeless mean effectual emphasis trial ; and ( degree Celsius ) following a stress way with = 2.dq dpaˆ? A: Determine the values of M 400 800 600 200 0 CSL q=1.29p ‘ Shear emphasis Q kPa 30 100 200 300 400 500 600 Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ kPa Nothingnesss ratioe 0.9 0.7 0.5 1.5 1.3 1.1 CSL e=1.42-0.12lnp ‘ 1 10 100 1000 Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ kPa Oxygen Nothingnesss ratio e n Shear emphasis Q CSL C I? Bacillus A P ‘ ( kPa ) CSL e=eCS -elnpaˆ? Bacillus C Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ ( kPa ) Fig. 14 Variation of dirt strength ( 53 ) 7.2.2 Peak strength As seen in Fig. 12, under shearing dirt at heavy province may make a peak strength ( higher than the critical province strength ) . However, this strength of dirt lessenings with the addition of distortional strain, and becomes indistinguishable to the critical province strength finally. Two characteristics of the peak strength should be noticed. The happening of a strength for dirt greater than the concluding critical province strength ( the extremum strength ) is possible merely if the dirt is under the CSL in the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite ( Fig 14 ) . This is in the â€Å" Dry † side. As named by Schofield and Wroth ( 1968 ) , soil behavior with both peak and critical province strength is â€Å" Dry † behavior. The peak strength is non stable. The minute a peak strength is reached, the strength of dirt will diminish with the farther distortional distortion. An empirical equation proposed by Liu and Carter ( 2002 ) may be used to gauge the peak strength ratio cp of dirt based on its place in the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite=Q P = aˆ? I · P P P 31 ( 1 a?’ I ¦ ) I? for A- & lt ; 0 I ¦ , the province parametric quantity, defined by Been and Jefferies ( 1985 ) as I ¦ = vitamin E a?’ vitamin E CS + I » ln p aˆ? ( 54 ) Uniting the above two equations, we obtain q P I · = = + a?’ a?’ aˆ? I? & lt ; a?’ I » aˆ? ( vitamin E e P ) vitamin E vitamin E P 1 ln for ln P CS CS ( 55 ) P P aˆ? For A- & gt ; 0, there is merely one strength. The peak strength and the critical province strength may be considered as coincident.7.2.3 Variation of dirt strength in the paˆ? – Q infiniteMohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard, written in the paˆ? – Q infinite, is given as 32 Q degree Fahrenheit = c + I? MC P aˆ? degree Fahrenheit ( 56 ) This standard is possibly the widely used standard to find the strength of dirts in geotechnical technology pattern. However, it is applicable for dirt conditionally. As shown in Fig. 14, Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard is applicable to dirty in the scope of AB, where the dirt in the â€Å" Dry † side, i.e. , below the CSL. The general strength standard for dirt may be divided into three scopes to analyze. Strength of dirts on the â€Å" Wet † side If a dirt province in the vitamin E – lnpaˆ? infinite is above the CSL, i.e. , A- & gt ; 0, the dirt is on the â€Å" Wet † side. Dirts on the â€Å" Wet † side have merely one strength, the concluding critical province strength. The critical province strength of dirts is represented by line BC, and their belongingss are introduced in subdivision 7.2.1. No tensile emphasis line Farinaceous stuffs such as littorals or clays in reconstituted provinces have no echt coherence, and can non prolong a tensile emphasis. The boundary oaˆ?min & gt ; 0 in the paˆ? – q infinite is = 3 Q,paˆ? represented by line OA. On the left side of line OA, tensile emphasis occurs. Strength of dirts on the â€Å" Dry † side Merely when dirt on the â€Å" Dry † side, the dirt has a coherence c. The strength of the dirt can depict by equation ( 56 ) , the Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard. Cohesion degree Celsius may be treated as changeless. Clash angle oMC and parametric quantity MMC is related by the undermentioned equation = 6sinoMC ( 57 ) Megahertz I?MC 3 a?’ sino The whole strength envelope OABC is shown in Fig. 14. Two errors are normally made in using the Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard for finding the strength of dirts. The extension of the Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard to the left side of AB and therefore implies dirt has a tensile strength. The extension of the Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard to the right side of AB ( beyond the critical province strength ) . This implies the ultimate clash angle of dirt will go on lessening after the critical province clash angle unlimited with the average effectual emphasis. Terzaghi, the laminitis of modern dirt mechanics, made both errors in widening the pertinence of Don Taylor ‘s experimental information. And I hope you will non do the same error in your technology designs or safety cheque. 33Example 6The critical province clash angle for a Leighton Buzzard sand in situ is 31A ° measured from conventional triaxial compaction trials. The strength envelope detected for the sand can be described by Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength standard with c= 40 kPa and oMC = 23A ° . ( 1 ) Determine the values of dirt parametric quantities M for critical province stength and MMC for Mohr-Coulomb ‘s strength ; ( 2 ) Pull the strength envelope of this Leighton Buzzard sand and depict the features of the strength of the sand ; ( 3 ) Discourse the strength of the sand under a drained conventional triaxial compaction trial with the initial emphasis province of the dirt being ( paˆ? = 30 kPa, q = 0, ) . A: Determine dirt parametric quantities M and MMC ; Shear emphasis Q kPa 250 200 150 100 50 0 A 3 ( 30, 0 ) vitamin D 3 0.9 Bacillus 1.24 C 0 50 100 150 200 Mean effectual emphasis P ‘ kPa 347.2.4 Residual province strength of clayey dirtsAfter probes on landslides in the late fiftiess, it was found that the shearing opposition of dirt in a figure of instances was much smaller than the â€Å" concluding † critical province strength measured in the research lab. The construct of residuary strength is formed ( Skempton, 1964 ) Residual strength is defined as the shear strength of a dirt that can be mobilised on a polished sliding surface, after it has been formed through the dirt due to the alliance of its Platypoecilus maculatus atoms. For any given dirt it is the minimal strength come-at-able. There are four major facets of the residuary strength, viz. Dirt must hold adequate plate-like atoms so that a smooth slickensided surface can be formed. The skiding surface of well-aligned dirt atoms must be for the residuary strength to be mobilised. The skiding surface of well-aligned Platypoecilus maculatus atoms can ease residuary failure merely along that surface. 4. The residuary sliding surface one time formed is normally non modified by subsequent distortions of comparatively little magnitude. The residuary strength of a dirt is chiefly dependent on the mineralogy of the dirt: the clay fraction. Clay fraction uc defined as the weight of the clay particles less than 0.002 millimeter in size over the entire weight of the dirt sample. uc is defined as I†° = G0.002 ( 58 ) cG Some experimental informations on the fluctuation of the critical province strength and residuary strength with clay fraction is shown In Fig. 15 ( From Skempton, 1984 ) . The undermentioned information can be obtained this information. ( 1 ) For a dirt with a clay fraction less than 25 % the concluding strength is the critical province strength. The strength is independent on clay fraction. Otherwise, the concluding strength of the dirt is its residuary strength. 0 20 40 60 80 10 0 Clash angle ( A ° ) 34 28 22 16 10 4 residuary province critical province Clay fraction ( % ) Fig. 15 Variation of the critical province and residuary province strengths with clay fraction 35 With 50 % & gt ; uc & gt ; 25 % , both critical province and residuary province strengths vary with clay fraction. With uc & gt ; 50 % , critical province and residuary province strengths are different, but remains with any alteration of clay fraction in the scope. The concluding strength of a dirt, expressed as a clash angle, may change from 32A ° to every bit low as 6A ° with the fluctuation of the clay fraction.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal - 958 Words

Although most people have debated that giving someone the death penalty seems inhumane closer examination shows that the death penalty might be just what the society needs to protect their family members and loved ones. The controversial issue regarding the death penalty has been around for hundreds of years. Humans always have to take a side in whether they take this issue as ethical or inhumane to take away the life of someone that could be just like us. Taking away the life of an innocent seems disgusting and shameful to many individuals but what if the person being murdered was not all that innocent? What if that person who was given the death sentence was being trialed for killing one of your own families? It could have been a daughter or son, your mother or father that had their life end due to the pleasure of another individual thinking it was okay to remove that person from your life. The strongest argument for the death penalty is the added cost to society of keeping a person in prison for twenty years at a cost of more than $50,000 per year (Smith, 1). With that being said, we are taking away money from building new roads and increasing the school education system because we are housing the living expenses of a criminal who has committed a horrendous crime. The death penalty not only affects the nation’s economy but also can hel settle with emotional comfort. The family members that committed can have some type of closure and relief instead of having the constantShow MoreRelatedThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1261 Words   |  6 PagesThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal The death penalty should not be legal because of two major reasonings. These reasons are, the death penalty takes the lives of many innocent people, and it also costs too much. The death penalty should not be legal because innocent people are wrongly convicted and killed. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, it puts innocent lives at risk. At least 4.1% of all defendants sentenced to death in the United States in the modern era are innocent (DeathRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1457 Words   |  6 PagesThe death penalty can be traced all the way to biblical times when people were executed for many reasons such as: for not believing in their god(s), choosing to interact in sexual conduct while unmarried, stealing, murder, etc. The methods of execution back in those times were to either: stone, hang, slay, crucify, and burn not only the offender who committed the crime, but if he or she had a family, the entire family was executed with them as a warning to the people of their tribe or city to notRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Legal?985 Words   |  4 PagesBen Goble Mr. Newman English Comp. November 4, 2015 Should the Death Penalty be Legal? The death penalty, also called capital punishment, has been a topic of debate among the public for many years, gaining very little ground in changing the legality of it one way or the other. The topic is very controversial because many people feel that it is wrong to take the life of another person. On the other hand a very comparable number of people push for the legality of capital punishment for condemningRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1004 Words   |  5 Pagesabolish death penalty† (Bosman). In thirty-one states, federal government and military legal system, the death penalty is lawful. Even the Supreme Court has been changed direction of capital punishment. One day, it could be a legal and illegal by the Supreme Court. Most of European countries ban the death penalty except Belarus that if a criminal involve international terrorism, murdered, inhumane crime and the criminal receives death penalty. Nowadays, banned the death penalty becomeRead MoreDeath Penalty Should Be Legal943 Words   |  4 PagesDo you think that death penalty will give justice for the innocent lives? The death penalty continues to be an issue of controversy in the whole world because people have different beliefs for giving justice to the innocents. For some people, they want it legal because death penalty will give justice for the innocent victims and a form of vengeance to the criminals. On the flipside, other people don’t agree with it because a lot of innocents are putting into death. These people believe that it isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1573 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many legal issues that come along with the death penalty. Ratified on December 15, 1791, The United States Bill of Rights states in its eight amendment, â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.† (8th Amendment to the Constitutio n). The Supreme Court stated during the 1958 case of Trop v. Dulles, that the 8th amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturingRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1555 Words   |  7 Pageshave on a person? The death penalty, or capital punishment, is one of the most debated topics in America. It has been used for centuries, but many claim it to be barbaric, and want the practice to end all together. The death penalty should only be used in cases where there is absolute evidence that the criminal is guilty, because life in prison can be an alternative, there are many flaws in the justice system, and it can be a cruel and unusual punishment. The death penalty is legal in 32 states, theRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal1554 Words   |  7 Pagesreceive the death penalty. Some say it is what they deserve, while others say that it is a â€Å"cruel and unusual†punishment. States, such as New Jersey, have already banned the penalty, but some states are still pending on whether to have the penalty or to follow New Jersey’s path . If you were to go and ask people why they are against the death penalty, they would say it is because it goes against morality, constitutionality, and the irrevocable mistakes of putting the wrong person to death. WhenRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1553 Words   |  7 Pagescalled problems with our system of justice is the death penalty. Capital punishment in this country seems to have its pros and cons. There are more issues and complications with being sentenced to death, while the positives are minuscule. The death penalty should not be allowed in the United States, and there are many reasons for this argument. The death penalty has caused controversy in the country since it became popular. 31 states use the death penalty and is also used by the military. Its use isRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Legal Essay2884 Words   |  12 Pagesis the death penalty - should it be legalized across the 50 states or be declared unconstitutional? Some believe the death penalty is a better option for those who deserve the highest form of punishment available. However, others argue capital punishment is a waste of resources and should be brought to an end. Therefore, while many believe the death penalty should be legalized throughout the United States because it offers a higher form of punishment, others believe the death penalty should be repealed

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Race, Racism and Critical Thinking Free Essay Example, 1000 words

Nobody will openly declare that he is a racist, sexist, or a fascist. At the same time, their activities may reflect the elements of racism, sexism, and fascism. Therefore, racism or sexism can be studied only with the help of observable behaviours. â€Å"Racist ideology turns into a theory forged to justify an act of aggression or to legitimate a relation of domination from which one would expect to profit† (De Benoist, p,16). Profit’s word making is the motto which encourages racists to spread their ideology. We are living in a world of commercialization. In today’s world, every action is analysed in terms of the profit and loss it made. Only profitable actions are acceptable to the society whereas actions which result in some kind of losses are avoided as much as possible. Racial activities definitely bring more profit to the elite group even though it brings losses to the underprivileged. Therefore, racists accept racism as an acceptable phenomenon whereas underprivileged or the victims label it as a unacceptable activity. â€Å"More broadly, racism is generated from the â€Å"normalization† of a relation of domination. We will write a custom essay sample on Race, Racism and Critical Thinking or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This idea is frequently espoused by authors who see an intimate relation between racism, colonialism, imperialism, etc† † (De Benoist, p,16). â€Å"The doctrine of colonialism unquestionably mixes racist judgments with an apology for colonialism† (De Benoist, p, 16). In fact racism was the root cause of some of the major wars in the past. For example, Second World War was the outcome of Hitler’s superiority feeling about German culture. Hitler believed that Germans are privileged to rule this world since they belong to the elite class. In his opinion, others should be ruled by the Germans. Same way, it should not be forgotten that Britain colonialized a substantial portion of this world in the twentieth century. They also believed that British people have the privilege to rule the world because of their superior race. In short, colonialism and world wars were happened because of racism. In fact, only secondarily can racist ideology eventually be used to legitimate domination. A classic example is the colonizer’s racist attitude toward the colonized. To a large extent, this attitude survives in the way some Westerners see the Third World: if these countries do not succeed in â€Å"developing, † it is because they are fundamentally incapable to do so (De Benoist, p, 19). In the past, the people in the third world countries were generally considered as underprivileged ones by the people in the developed countries.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Scare Tactics Aids Epidemic Essay - 913 Words

Scare Tactics: AIDS Epidemic In 1991, Elizabeth Taylor said â€Å"It’s bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance.† Why was ignorance such an issue when a deadly disease was claiming lives daily? The definition of ignorance is a lack of knowledge or information. The AIDS epidemic that hit the United States over thirty years ago, sent fear across the country. With so much fear, why wasn’t there more information available? Why were people dying of â€Å"ignorance†? The first known case in the United States was in 1981. A majority of the cases were found in San Francisco and New York, primarily in the gay community. The cases were usually related to death by pneumonia or a rare form of skin cancer, called Kaposi’s sarcoma. Within a year, there were two hundred and seventy cases of the illness, more than one hundred men died. By the time people were being diagnosed, it was too late. Ad campaigns were aimed at the gay community. Their purpose was to promote safe sex and inform people of the dangers of AIDS. In 1986, the Health Education Resource Organization released an ad posted that featured two young men with the words, â€Å"‘You won’t believe what we like to wear in bed.’ Use condoms. There’s living proof they stop AIDS.† As time went on and more cases came, it was realized that this disease was not targeting on group. It did not discriminate, everyone was at risk. Ad campaigns were trying to inform the public about the illness and whatShow MoreRelatedMary Fisher: the Struggle to Inform1223 Words   |  5 PagesTechnical Institute (Online Division) â€Å"A life lived in fear, Is a life half lived.† (Slaughter, 2010) AIDS is a worldwide epidemic that has affected and is affecting millions of people. Even though it was not discovered until 1982 many stereotypes have come along with it. Mary Fisher is an AIDS community member and is not afraid to stand up and say so. Defending and helping those with HIV/AIDS and helping them spread the word instead of keeping silent. In 1991 she found out that she had contractedRead MoreThe History Of AIDS1143 Words   |  5 Pages AIDS has also taken a greater toll on certain ethnic groups. In 2004 the American Journal of Public Health released a study that showed that AIDS has a disproportionate effect upon Latino women, and represents the fourth leading cause of death for Latinas aged 25 to 44 years old. It was also noted that 38.3% of Mexican-American women had not received any sex education in schools. Around half received no sex education from their parents. The journal also reported that parents in Latino familiesRead MoreAutism : Children And Your Dreams1276 Words   |  6 Pagestime and had a great deal of influance in the media, over the years Autism Speaks has used that influence to gain popularity and momentum in their campaign against autism. Autism Speaks has made it quite clear that they believe that autism is an epidemic and it must be stopped. Autism Speaks has grown to be the largest organization in autism, as well as the most controversial. Autism Speaks promises to provide advocacy, awaren ess and research to find a ways to prevent and eventually cure for autismRead MoreThailand Case Study856 Words   |  4 Pageson Thailand for this discussion because it is remarkable how such a poverty, HIV prominent country for decades, has finally in 2016 eliminated the mother to child transmission of HIV. Dating back in the 1980s and 1990s, Thailand struggled with the epidemic of HIV, with an estimated 143,000 new infections in 1991 (Brown T, Sittitrai W, 1993). 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In addition, in the 1980s the AIDS epidemic began, causing the risk-prevention aspect of sex education. In fact this epidemic set about the best prevention of teen pregnancy and STD’s, abstinence. â€Å"Young people are going to learn about sex and our question has to be where do we want them to learn? From the media? From their friendsRead MoreThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv ) / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Aids )1199 Words   |  5 PagesThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the deadliest pandemics the world has ever known. Unprecedented efforts and resources have been mobilized to fight the infection worldwide. While obvious progress has been made, HIV infection still hit hard and the field of public health continues actively to raise awareness about this issue and help affected people. Public health professionals constantly look for new ways to reach high-risk populations, butRead MoreCase Stud1010 Words   |  5 Pagesopioids, and MDMA (ecstasy) (Hall W, Ross J, Lynskey M, Law M, Degenhardt L.,2000). Australian Governments on all levels including non-governments have been trying to fight this illic it drug problem for many years with different approaches to the epidemic. This case study will be analysing the illicit drug problem in Australia, trends and closely scrutinizing the effectiveness of the Australian Governments National Drug Campaign 2010-15 (NDC) in reaching its target audience. This case study will thenRead MoreCyber Crimes And The Cyber Crime Epidemic1511 Words   |  7 PagesThe rise of the cyber-crime epidemic is a danger that can affect even the wariest of internet users. There is an abundance of ways that hackers and the hidden dangers of the internet can pose threats to internet users. Cyber scams, the deep and dark web, and counterfeiting are just some of the cyber-crimes that exist in our day-to-day world. The effects of cyber-crimes can range from computer viruses, to monetary loss, and even identity theft. Above all, cyber-crimes can include internet users beingRead MoreControl And Its Effects On The Choices People And Individuals Make1345 Words   |  6 Pagesteaching issues regarding the environment--some students don’t form their own opinions after learning and discussions. Instead, they walk in with their parents’ opinions and remain closed to thinking differently or reevaluating their thoughts. Scare tactics can further complicate things when we want our students to be open to thinking and/or acting differently. Unfortunately, these attitudes continue into adult--discussions and change are unwelcomed. With students, I hope to focus on what students